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The Right to the City: fulfilling the vision of cities and human settlements realized by all its inhabitants

First conceived by the French philosopher Henri Lefevbre (1968) as a "demand for a transformed and renewed access to urban life", the Right to the City has progressively emerged as a call to action fostering local communities to transform urban reality under principles of socio-spatial justice and full participation: a cities for life, where the notion of social interaction and commons are at the heart of the urban project. For local governments in the framework of our Committee and UCLG, the Right to the City arises as an opportunity to promote a renewed social contract at the city level: one that guarantees all human rights, promotes an equitable and sustainable development and mainstreams participation in urban life as a vehicle for social inclusion and cohesion.

[ Participation in the UCLG Policy Council on the Right to the City ]

UCLG has been defending the Right to the City as a way to foster citizen participation and the reduction of inequalities and poverty. Our Committee takes part in the UCLG Policy Council on the “Right to the City and Inclusive Territories” as the consultation mechanism where members are invited to share their views and policies on the subject.

[ Networking: International seminars of local governments for the Right to the City ]

Our Committee supports local governments willing to organize International Seminars for the Right to the City. As the Global Charter-Agenda for Human Rights in the City is a key reference to promote human rights at local level, these seminars are key to go further in their implementation and to consolidate a global movement.

[ International advocacy: The Right to the City in sustainable developement agendas ]

The Habitat III process was instrumental for advancing international networking around the Right to the City. The Committee promoted this agenda through two main axis: taking part in the campaign conveyed around the Global Taskforce, as well as supporting civil society gathered around the Global Platform for the Right to the City.

    [ ​Networking: Civil society and the Global Platform for the Right to the City ]

    The Global Platform for the Right to the City (GPR2C) is an international network of civil society’s organizations and local governments with the aim to promote the right to the city in local and global agendas. The Platform facilitates cooperation and coordination between its over members through advocacy, research and awareness raising actions.

    Global discussions around the Right to the City emerged within the framework of international city networks after two forums of cities created in parallel to the first editions of the World Social Forum: the Forum of Local Authorities for Social Inclusion (FAL) and the Forum of Local Authorities of Periphery (FALP). The FAL ended up by joining the UCLG Committee on Social Inclusion, Participatory Democracy and Human Rights in 2005.

    The Commitment of Belém (2008) is a good document to take stock of the work developed by the FAL in order to promote the Right to the City. It helps us to identify its origins and advance in our network:

    "Once again, the FAL reaffirms the importance of cooperation between territorial governments of different levels and of the alliance with social movements for the construction of another possible world in a context of strong structural and global crisis (…) Therefore, it is proposed to deepen the reflection on the right to the city (...), on the social function of the city and on the need to territorialize human rights”

    Commitment of Belém (2008)

    Throughout the last 20 years, the Global Charter-Agenda and the European Charter for Human Rights in the City have articulated a comprehensive understanding of the Right to the City in regards to human rights:

    “All city inhabitants have the Right to a City constituted as a local political community that ensures adequate living conditions for all the people, and provides good coexistence among all its inhabitants, and between them and local authorities”

    Global Charter-Agenda for Human Rights in the City (2011)

    By the second decade of the century, two seminars of local governments strenghtened the commitment of local authorities towards the Right to the City and set the ground for renewed international campaigning. In the first summit of local governments for the right to the city, held in Saint-Denis (France) back in 2012, local governments recalled how:

    “we believe it is imperative to pursue this process so that the right to the city, understood as the equitable usufruct of cities within the principles of sustainability, equality, solidarity and social justice, becomes tangible realities in all of our cities and metropolitan regions”

    Final declaration of the 1st World Summit of Local Governments for the Right to the City (2012)

    The second Seminar of Local Governments for the Right to the City, held in Mexico City in 2015, relaunched local governments commitment and engaged with new local authorities and social movements. Mexico's summit was also instrumental in providing a preparatory framework towards Habitat III; the international process aimed at adopting a “New Urban Agenda” (2016). On this paramount occasion, the alliance of local governments and social movements was instrumental to achieve, for the first time in a high-level international document, a mention to the Right to the City:

    “We share a vision of cities for all, referring to the equal use and enjoyment of cities and human settlements, seeking to promote inclusivity and ensure that all inhabitants, of present and future generations, without discrimination of any kind, are able to inhabit and produce just, safe, healthy, accessible, affordable, resilient and sustainable cities and human settlements to foster prosperity and quality of life for all. We note the efforts of some national and local governments to enshrine this vision, referred to as “Right to the City”, in their legislation, political declarations and charters”

    New Urban Agenda (2016)

    As the world organization of local and regional governments, UCLG has deepend its commitment toward the Right to the City and promoted it among its members. In its Bogotá Congress (2016), UCLG decided to put the Right to the City at the heart of its strategy in terms of urban and territorial governance:

    “Growing inequalities create new forms of poverty and exclusion. Local and regional governments face the daily responsibility of tackling socio-spatial exclusion and promoting social justice, integrating migrants, preventing discrimination and urban violence, and protecting social rights to ensure prosperity and well-being”

    The Bogotá Commitment and Action Agenda (2016)

    Hand in hand with local authorities, our Committee has continued to engage with worldwide social movements advocating for the Right to the City through local action. The Global Platform for the Right to the City has articulated a consistent community of civil society organizations, coming to define the Right to the City as:

    “the right of all inhabitants (present and future; permanent and temporary) to use, occupy, produce, govern and enjoy just, inclusive, safe and sustainable cities, villages and settlements defined as common goods”

    Global Platform for the Right to the City (2016)


    Among other milestones for advancing a shared understanding of the Right to the City or developing it in a specific territory, in the last years the Committee has promoted or embraced the following documents:

    European Charter for Safeguarding Human Rights in the City (1998) – Montréal Charter of Rights and Responsibilities (2008) – Mexico’s City Charter for the Right to the City (2010) – Global Charter-Agenda for Human Rights in the City (2011) – Saint Denis Declaration of Local Governments for the Right to the City (2012) – Gwangju Guiding Principles for a Human Rights City (2014) – Financing the Right to the City for all (2016)